(Image: Shane Stagner)

Seaweed – under construction



  • Eating the seaweed Asparagopsis reduces up to 80% of methane emissions from cows: 43% of our greenhouse gas emissions are from agriculture and 80% of methane from ruminant farm animals, mostly dairy cows
  • Kelp pulls more carbon dioxide out of the air than rainforests ‘drawdown’, grows much faster, ans permanently sequesters it when allowed to drop to the deep ocean floor
  • Kelp reduces the acidity of seawater immediately around it. This could resolve problems being faced by mussels and oyster farms as the ocean become more acidic
  • As a human food, kelp has more iron than meat.

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Video 1: Prof. Tim Flannery explains the incredible role that seaweed can play in drawing down carbon emissions





Sequestration: ocean permaculture

Soil, forests, seaweed: driven by the sun (ie free) – can grow up to 1m/day. Cut off and left to drift down, carbon is sequestered for millennia as the seaweed grows. 

Mechanical/chemical: withdraw from the air and convert to biodfuels, plastics etc, punmp deep underground, or convert to rocks (Iceand)


  • Policies and international research, agendas have recognised by failed to reduce emissions
  • Emissions continue to climb in spite of agreed upon reaserch showing the need to reduce (IPCC)
  • Policies to reduce are voluntary; no sanctions or other punative measures against countries that do not agree or fail to meet their promimises (including international agreements made in Paris)
    The goal of staying under 1.5C means we can only increase andother 0.3 degrees, as we have already reached 1.2C.
  • To os thatWe need to cut the amount we re currently emitting to 3Gtones/year every year.
  • In fact, we are emitting 4.5Gt/year



While the co-benefits of essential life-supporting ecosystem services, carbon sequestration, and climate change adaptation capabilities of a healthy biodiversity are currently undervalued in the ETS, research is underway to rectify this situation:

Fig. 1: What remains of New Zealand’s native forests. Other ecosystems including wetlands, dunelands, and braided rivers have suffered equally widespread net losses (i.e. the difference between losses and gains) of indigenous cover types between 1996 and 2018. For indigenous forests, scrub and shrublands, this loss was 40,800 ha, and for indigenous grasslands it was 44,800 ha. (p47 DOC1) (Image: DOC/Christie)





To draw excess greenhouse gasses, primarily carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it back underground. See the carbon cycle.